“The theology of the average colored church is basing itself far too much upon ‘hell and damnation,'” wrote DuBois. Anti-rational dogma repelled him, and he ceased participating in organized worship as a young adult.
Langston Hughes “sought to counter, as best he could, his almost ineradicable reputation as an atheist. However, he made no effort to appear pious in public, and attached himself to no church.”
Paine wrote, “the Bible and the Testament are impositions upon the world” and that “religious duties consist in doing justice, loving mercy, and endeavoring to make our fellow-creatures happy.”